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The hormone resistin has been suggested to link obesity to type 2 diabetes by modulating steps in the insulin-signaling pathway and inducing insulin resistance. Nutr Rev. Oct;62(10) Insulin resistance and obesity: resistin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. Wolf G(1). Author information: (1)Department. Resistin is a hormone mainly derived from macrophages in humans and from adipose tissue in rodents, which regulates glucose metabolism.


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Resistin: functional roles and therapeutic considerations for cardiovascular disease

Resistin hormone, resistin has been shown to increase the uptake of oxLDL by macrophages, thereby promoting foam cell formation Xu et al. A resistin-induced phenotypic change into foam cells has been demonstrated in a variety of contexts, and it has been shown that resistin directly affects the metabolism of fatty acids by increasing cholesterol esterification into lipid, increasing the intracellular availability of non-esterified fatty acids in human macrophages Rae et al.

In light of the different sources of resistin in mice and humans adipose tissue vs. It was found that these mice, when fed a high-fat diet, demonstrated exacerbated diet-induced insulin resistance when compared with controls.

This was associated with marked white adipose tissue inflammation, increased lipolysis and elevated serum free fatty acids.

Resistin: a new hormone that links obesity with type 2 diabetes

Resistin and cytokines Cytokines are small cell-signalling molecules mediate inflammation. Cytokines bind their matching cell-surface receptors and trigger intracellular signalling pathways, which in turn alter cellular functions.

It has been demonstrated that resistin promotes endothelial cell activation resistin hormone the release of ET-1 and up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule and intercellular adhesion molecule-1; meanwhile, resistin leads to down-regulation of the expression of tumour necrosis factor TNF receptor-associated factor-3 TRAF-3an inhibitor of TNF receptor superfamily member 5 CD40 ligand signalling Verma et al.

In addition, resistin has been shown resistin hormone induce pentraxin 3, an inflammatory mediator involved in atherosclerosis, in human endothelial cells Kawanami et al.

Resistin itself is an adipokine and has been found to induce the expression of cytokines and chemokines in human articular chondrocytes Zhang et al.

Adiponectin, Resistin and Leptin: Possible Markers of Metabolic Syndrome | OMICS International

So far there has been only one published report where the authors show that resistin competes with lipopolysaccharide for binding to TLR4 receptor in human myeloid and epithelial cells Tarkowski et al. As TLR4 binds to exogenous bacterial and viral structures and mediates the protective inflammatory reactions of the host, the authors evaluated the role of intracellular signalling pathways in resistin-mediated pro-inflammatory effects in PBMCs.

Resistin and endothelial function Endothelial cells form the main physical barrier between blood and the arterial wall and control the movement of solutes and fluid from the vascular space to the surrounding tissues.

These substances are essential for controlling vascular growth, vasomotor reactivity, platelet function, coagulation, and immunologic and inflammatory responses Libby, Endothelial cells are connected resistin hormone specialized structures called endothelial cell junctions, which provide the primary endothelial barrier function.

Resistin: a new hormone that links obesity with type 2 diabetes

Endothelial dysfunction due to breakdown of the endothelial cell—cell barrier promotes atherogenesis as a result of enhanced permeability through the endothelial layer, increased adherence of leukocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and subendothelial accumulation of cholesterol-bearing lipoproteins Widlansky et al.

It has been reported that high concentrations of resistin generated in conditional media from epicardial adipose tissue EAT of patients with ACS profoundly influence in resistin hormone endothelial function by significantly increasing endothelial cell permeability Langheim et al.

These findings suggest that EAT-secreted resistin is a major inducer of endothelial damage through the induction of hyper-permeability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells HUVECs. Apart from resistin, other members of the family of RLM have been shown to be involved in the maintenance of epithelial cell barrier function.

Recently, we have investigated whether resistin impairs endothelial functions by affecting the endothelial nitric oxide synthase eNOS system in human coronary artery endothelial cells HCAECs Chen et al. Cellular levels of reactive oxygen species ROS including superoxide anion were significantly increased in resistin-treated HCAECs, whereas mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of catalase resistin hormone superoxide dismutase were reduced in comparison with untreated cells.


Antioxidants effectively blocked resistin-induced eNOS down-regulation. Furthermore, resistin resistin hormone is increased in atherosclerotic regions of human aorta and carotid arteries Chen et al.

Insulin resistance and obesity: resistin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue.

We also investigated the effects of resistin treatment on cultured porcine coronary artery endothelial cells PCAECs Kougias et al. Immunoreactivity for resistin hormone in resistin-treated pulmonary artery rings was also substantially reduced.

Impaired vasorelaxation in response to pharmacological agents is a useful indicator of vascular dysfunction. We determined that resistin can affect vasomotor function in porcine coronary arteries Kougias et al. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to bradykinin was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner in artery rings treated with resistin.

This represents compelling evidence that resistin reduces both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, and this is likely mediated by increased superoxide production in porcine coronary artery rings.

Insulin resistance and obesity: resistin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue.

The effects of resistin on coronary vasomotor function have also been studied by other investigators both in vitro and in vivo Dick et al. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of resistin on superoxide anion production in coronary arteries and vasomotor functions in response to endothelium-dependent relaxants in anesthetized dogs and isolated coronary artery rings.

These investigations demonstrated that administration of resistin into the coronary artery did not change coronary blood flow, mean arterial pressure, heart rate or acetylcholine-induced resistin hormone of artery rings; however, resistin did impair bradykinin-induced relaxation in isolated coronary rings in vitro and also attenuated bradykinin-induced vasodilation in vivo.